Friday, March 13, 2020
How to Write a Thesis Proposal How to Write a Thesis Proposal A simple framework is followed in compiling a thesis proposal. At first, a particular issue on a given topic is identified. Afterwards, various findings and scholarly works on the given topic are identified and studied. An evaluation is then done on the collected documents where information, that would be necessary to solve such an issue from the collected documents, is singled out. An analysis of the data is then done where the results that are related to the stated issue, get reported. Thesis proposals are written using simple language for the purpose of quick understanding by the preferred reader. All thesis proposals should have a thesis proposal cover sheet that bears the authors title and other relevant information about the writer. Another rule that should be observed, while writing a thesis proposal, is that the writer should not include a title page. This is mainly because it is a minor requirement for this case. A title should always be given in the case of a thesis proposal, which should be relevant and must accurately describe the focus of the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis statement. In the advent of writing a thesis proposal, various procedures need to be followed. For instance, the writer is supposed to first outline the objective of the thesis proposal. This part entirely entails creating awareness of the available research issue and probable approach to it. It also involves giving a clear problem statement that is done by looking at current research on the subject matter. The second step that is followed, while writing a thesis proposal, is presenting a good and clear outline of the required thesis proposal document. This step involves various sub-topics that form the body of the document. Such topics include the title; an abstract, a brief introduction on the subject matter; proposed findings; related research and conclusion; then lastly, a bibliography is given. In the case of the heading, it should be laid out clearly in order to attract the readers. This involves being careful for the sake of the writer, so as to avoid some common writing mistakes, hence the presentation of an outstanding thesis proposal. The last step towards writing a thesis proposal involves giving various details on minimal concerns, together with expectations. This largely includes issues to do with timing, length, flexibility and finally, preliminary works. For example, on the issue of time, some particular persons may feel that they need their proposal done by the end of two and a half years. This means that those, handling this particular thesis, need to consider performing the given task before the given time is over, in order for them to have met the thesis requirements. At you can easily get professional thesis proposal help online, from PhD academic writers. Custom thesis proposal writing of the highest quality guaranteed.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Negative effects of smoking in campus and solutions to prevent it - Essay Example However, for those who choose not to smoke, their rights have to be respected just as much as those who do smoke. This means that non-smoking students do not want to be exposed to secondhand smoke. Otherwise, they would probably choose to be smokers themselves. The negative effects of smoking on campus are that it impedes the rights of non-smokers on campus, contributes to a negative image of the particular college involved, and results in poor grades for students who smoke. The way to prevent the negative effects of smoking on campus is to allow smoking in specific areas and only at certain times. The difficulty with smoking on campus is that many students go to college in order to learn and attain some kind of degree. Being exposed to secondhand smoke may make them lose focus and interest in their studies because their rights are being violated. No reasonable student would suggest banning smoking on campus completely. All that non-smokers want is to be left alone in peace so that they can concentrate on the reason why they are at college in the first place. The problem with smoking on campus is that it infringes on the rights of other people and forces them to have to put up with secondhand smoke. In order to fix this problem, there needs to be a solution that accommodates both smokers and non-smokers. It is not a case of pleasing one group and not pleasing another; there needs to be a compromise on how smokers can smoke on campus without involving anyone else. Smoking on campus does not give a college a particularly good look. The image of an education institution helps to uphold its reputation in the community. If a college or university gets a reputation of being a smoke-friendly place, it may cause potential new students to find other education institutions. This will mean that the institution will not grow as previously expected. A result of this may be that the fees will increase for students who already attend that institution. In addition to
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Security Program - Case Study Example The organization under analysis is the New York public library. In this organization, security issues are taken into account as the library gather and keep personal data of users and their personal information. The New York public library consists of several branches and departments; it has regional branches and has more than 43,975,362 items. The library computerized its lending services in order to improve customer service and improve its routine work. The security program is aimed to protect users from unauthorized access to their information and protect library from attacks. Beyond that, however, all staff-especially those who deal with personal data regularly-need to be aware of what they are allowed to do, what they are not allowed to do, what security procedures they are expected to follow, and whom to ask if they are in any doubt. There must be policies spelling out what is expected, opportunities for staff to know what those policies are and what procedures are required to implement them, and regular checks on whether the policies and procedures are being followed (Data Security and Protection 2008). The security program was implemented 5 years ago. It is supposed that the biggest risk to security is almost always staff. The damage they do can be deliberate-stealing information about people, such as business contacts they want to use for their own purposes, for example, or trashing the database out of frustration on being demoted. More often it is un-thinking or inadvertent-giving information over the telephone to someone who shouldn't have it, leaving confidential files on their kitchen table for a neighbour to see when they are working at home, or chatting in the canteen about a user's borrowing habits where other people can overhear. Even with external threats, the accepted wisdom is that anyone trying to gain access is more likely to succeed by tricking staff into giving away vital information than by hacking straight into computer (Data Security and Protection 2008). The first line of defense is therefore to ensure that staff are aware of the possibilities and operate withi n a culture where information, and especially personal data, is handled carefully and responsibly. To support them, employees should take measures that make it as easy as possible for them to do the right thing. At the same time employees should not be over-anxious. Security measures must be appropriate to the threat, not 100% perfect every time. (Even government security agencies have been known to lose vital information held on laptop computers.) The kind of things the responsible person at the departmental level should be looking at include (Baschab et al 2007; The New York Public Library 2008). In the New York public library, one area that often gives rise to concern is e-mail. Although the dangers can be exaggerated, it is important to be aware that e-mail is inherently insecure. E-mails themselves may constitute personal data if the addressee is identifiable. More importantly, if e-mail is used for sending personal data to other people, some thought should be given as to whether it should be encrypted. A special attention is given to the information department of a charity. A new computer system is introduced for holding details of telephone enquiries, which
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Corellation Between Spirituality, Emotions Essay Abstract Ã The purpose of this paper is to describe the changes during pregnancy, which is influenced by various factors like lifestyle modification, emotions and spirituality. The paper first discusses in detail about the stress and emotional changes, which occurs during pregnancy and its impact on both child and mother. These results are also supported with proper evidence from various research. Ã Secondly, paper discusses about how lifestyle modification in pregnant women affects the child and mother and these results are supported by evidence from various research.Ã Finally, the paper discusses about the spiritual believes and its impact on pregnant women. INTRODUCTION Pregnancy is a life event for which most women look forward too. The symptoms of pregnancy might sometimes be distressing but ultimately, it is all worthwhile. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s life changes completely during this period. This is the most stressful as well as memorable period in a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Proper planning before pregnancy to overcome the physical and emotional changes is highly essential. Since, lifestyle modification, stress, anxiety and diet changes produce major impacts in pregnant women and the fetus, the need for proper life style modification during pregnancy is recommended by all physicians. This paper discusses the impact of three major factors Stress, life style modification and spirituality in pregnant women with empirical evidence from various research studies. STRESS AND RELATED IMPACTS IN PREGNANT WOMENÃ Expectant women are subject to stress due to several factors, which includes physical changes during pregnancy, environmental changes, lifestyle changes and several other factors. Pregnant women besides physical changes also experience emotional changes at time of pregnancy. Mood swings are common and women will face emotional ups and downs in early pregnancy because of hormonal changes. Its is common for pregnant women to cry or get angry and upset for no apparent reason. Ã Pregnancy Changes related to stress During first trimester, the pregnant women spend most of their time by realizing the fact that they are pregnant. They experience themselves inwardly and try to understand and overcome the fears about the pregnancy. This must be the case only when the women experiencing the first pregnancy. In later pregnancy, they become more familiar with the changes. At first pregnancy, pregnant women are subjected to many fear such as fear about discontinuing the job, lifestyle changes, responsibility, economical constrains etc. Insecure feelings are common during the early stage of pregnancy. Mood swings grows higher leading to unusual behaviors. The pregnant woman may laugh or cry for irrelevant things. These are often related to hormonal changes in the body. However, researchers believe that hormonal changes during pregnancy augment the force of the feelings and do not causes mood change. Few researchers has identified that the amount of anxiety is heavier in pregnant women who bears a boy baby, for which the reasons are unidentified. In the second trimester, the expectant mother slowly comes out of fear and anxiety, which they experienced during the first trimester and starts feeling better as by now they start experiencing the movement of the baby. During this period, the understanding between the husband and wife starts growing and slowly they accept the existence of baby. The woman starts showing changes physically as she gain weight, also fear and anxiety grows rapidly during this period as fear of miscarriage or disaster to the baby or to herself develops. Speaking out about the fear to her husband or to someone close would relive herself from stress. During the last stage of pregnancy, the pregnant mother experience more fear and stress. As they grow larger in size, they experience low self-esteem and expect more attention from all the dear ones especially from her husband. They fear more regarding delivery complications. Ã Physical stress during pregnancy and its impact Physical strain during pregnancy is equal to emotional strain. High physical stress during pregnancy is not advisable as it has possibility of inducing preterm delivery among pregnant women. Ã¢â¬Å"In a research conducted by Mozurkewich and Colleague among the employees of pregnant women in U.S who had performed increased physical work has given birth before their deliver date. In another study conducted among the women in France has shown similar results. Ã Stress and its impact on diet Stress, tension, low energy, exhaustion and other emotional changes can influence the diet preference by the pregnant women. According to the study conducted by the Ã¢â¬ËJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Å"the diet of the expectant mother would affect the growth of the fetus and the wellbeing of the infant. According to this study which was conducted by Ã¢â¬ËKristen Hurley, Janet DiPietro, Kathleen Costigan and Laura CaulfieldÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Å"Mother who experienced more fatigue during the pregnancy period consumed more amount of energy rich foods and zinc and consumed less folate. Expectant mothers who felt more stressed munched more amount of snacks and carbohydrate foods and also consumed lots of foods which is rich in fat, protein, iron and zinc. Worried feelings were connected with poorer consumption of vitamin C. Mothers who were stressed by pregnancy experience ate less meat.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã¢â¬Å"While pregnant women eating more amount of food may lead to increase in micronutrients and decrease the intake of other important nutrients like folate and vitamin CÃ¢â¬ , says, Ã¢â¬ËLaura Caulfield, Ph.D. an associate professor at the Bloomberg School of Public HealthÃ¢â¬â¢s Centre for Human NutritionÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã Stress and its effect on the fetus Stress during pregnancy can bring about several changes in mother and childÃ¢â¬â¢s health. It affects the heart rate of the pregnant women. It also brings about blood pressure and anxiety in women. Ã¢â¬Å"According to Catherine Monk of Columbia University, emotional changes during pregnancy result in heart problems in pregnant women and have major effect on the fetus.Ã¢â¬ Ã Earlier research has shown that stress during pregnancy leads to under weight babies and premature babies. Researcher has found that heart rate of mother is associated to heart rate of the fetus and when mother is stressed or worried, it affects the infant directly. Researchers from John Hopkins University and National Institute of Child Health Development (NICHD) in their research have found that emotional changes during pregnancy have direct impact on childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Mother with increased emotion and fear of pregnancy has children with poor behavior skills and emotional disorder.Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"According to Janet A. DiPietro, PhD, a developmental psychologist and professor at John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, increased stress during pregnancy results in chemical changes which manipulate the organ growth and development of the fetus.Ã¢â¬ Thus, it is essential for a pregnant women to be free from stress and emotions during and after pregnancy to give birth to a healthy baby and to maintain her own health. LIFESTYLE CHANGES AND ITS IMPACT IN EXPECTANT MOTHER Lifestyle modification during pregnancy affects both mother and child especially when seems to be negative. Expectant mothers who are involved in habits such as Cigarette, alcohol, caffeine etc are under risk of developing breast cancer, delivery complications and pass the risk of behavioral disorder to their child. Apart from this diet, modification and exercise pattern also has impact on childÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. Expectant mother with eating disorder or overeating habits are prone to low-birth weight or over weight babies. Alteration in diet with inadequate nutrients or over nutrition leads to gestational diabetes. The child born to such parents develops Type I diabetes and are also at risk of developing cardiovascular problems. Lower folate consumption before and during the time of pregnancy would lead to birth defect and neurological problems. Hence, proper nutrition intake before and after pregnancy is essential. Consumption of Alcohol at the time of pregnancy leads to abortion, affects the fetus development, causes serious birth defects particularly the intellectual growth of the child. Hence, it is advisable to avoid alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy. Pregnant women who drink heavily are at risk of giving birth to child with alcohol syndrome i.e. a syndrome, which has major effect on mental and physical health. Similarly, pregnant women who consumes higher amount of caffeine are also at risk of developing miscarriage and birth defects. In addition, heavy exposure to chemicals can lead to birth defects. Various studies have shown that exposure to hazardous chemicals as solvents at work place have resulted in increase in the risk of abortion or birth defects. Apart from these, exercise during pregnancy is highly essential. Exercise during pregnancy strengthens the lower back and lower abdomen. Lack of proper exercise would result in caesarian and delivery complications. Exercise can reduce the labor complications and the risk of delivery. Regular exercise and walking would be more effective if followed in the second and third trimester. It helps the pregnant women to be relieved out of constipation, discomfort due to increased weight, fatigue, backaches etc Ã Diet modification during pregnancy affects the child and the offspring A research study conducted by Ã¢â¬Å"ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s hospital Oakland Research Institute by David Martin, M.D, Dr. Jennifer Cropley and Catherine Suter from Victor Chang Heart Institute in Sydney, November 2006, has found that, Ã¢â¬Ë motherÃ¢â¬â¢s diet during pregnancy Ã dose not only affect the health of her child but also affects the health of the grandchildren by changing the behavior of specific gene.Ã¢â¬ The researchers has performed the study on Avy mouse (yellow in color) which posses gene similar to human genes. The researchers during the research has used two group of pregnant mouse of which one group was fed with usual diet consumed by human and the other group was provided with supplements such as folate, vitamin, zinc etc along with the normal diet during the middle of the pregnancy. The similar experiments were followed for the offspringÃ¢â¬â¢s. The results of the study revealed that mouse without the supplement diet in both the experiments has shown considerable alteration in the gene resulting in the change of color from yellow to brown and were also found to be unhealthy and are at risk of cancer. Though it is, the known fact that motherÃ¢â¬â¢s diet would have considerable impact on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s health this is the first study, which has compared the correlation between motherÃ¢â¬â¢s diet and its impact in offspring. According to Ã¢â¬ËKenneth Beckman, Ph.D. Assistance Scientist at CHORI and a member of Project Export Centre of excellence in Nutritional Genomics, said, Ã¢â¬Å"The supplements provided during the pregnancy of the mother benefited the grand children even when the mother of the grandchild did not consume diet with supplements. Thus, maternal diet could have long lasting implications which extends for generations and even centuries.Ã¢â¬ Overeating and its impact on childÃ Ã According to the research from Ã¢â¬ËOregon Health and Science University, September 2006Ã¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Å"overeating during pregnancy may lead to several health problems to the child.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The researcher Kevin Grove, Ph.D., a scientist in ONPRCÃ¢â¬â¢s Division of Neuroscience in his research has confirmed that grandchildren off the expectant mother who overeat are at risk for liver damage and at a risk for early commencement of diabetes and obesity. Apart from this considerable change take place in the hypothalamus of the brain, which is responsible for the weight regulation. Ã He also states that children who are born to mother who consumes lots of fatty foods may be at a risk of diabetes and obesity.Ã¢â¬ The researchers have noted that pregnant female monkeys who were used for the research when provided with high fatty food passed on liver damage and pancreas damage to their offspringÃ¢â¬â¢s. The results were similar to humans when expectant women consumed high fatty food. It is clear from the above study that the need for a balanced diet among pregnant women is highly essential to prevent all health related problems to the child and the offspring. Another study conducted by world health organization there is a considerable increase in obesity related heart disease and metabolic disease among the present generation. Though the increase in obesity among present generation is because they consume high amount of fatty foods like sugar and saturated fats, on the other hand the obesity is also associated with increased consumption of energy rich food during pregnancy and during breast-feeding is one more reason for obesity among childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s. For several years it is has been stated that undernourished mother during pregnancy give birth to low birth weight babies which in turn affects the infant with heart related problems as it grows. However, latest studies reveals that apart form undernourished mother even the child born for mother who during pregnancy expose to energy rich food are also prone to heart disease. The study also revels that maternal diet has direct impact on childÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for food and maternal diet with increased energy food results in heart disease and other diseases like diabetes and hypertension in the later part of life. In such cases, the child develops abnormalities in aorta and in kidney resulting in severe disease as they grow up. Ã Smoking affects the child and grandchild Pregnant women may pass down the habit of smoking and its related disease to their child and to their grandchildren for continued generation. Ã Research study from Australia in 1982 has revealed the fact that children born to mothers who smoked during the time pregnancy started smoking before the age of 15 when compared to the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s who were born to the mother who were non-smokers. At the same time, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s of mothers who were smokers and gave up smoking at the time of pregnancy has shown similar results as childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s of mother who was non-smoker.Ã Thus, pregnant women are highly recommended to avoid smoking during pregnancy. Different study conducted by Ã¢â¬ËKeck School of Medicine of University of California, states that use of tobacco and nicotine by the mother during pregnancy would result in lung diseases such as asthma to her children and grandchildren. The author Frank D. Gilliland, Professor of preventive medicine Keck School of Medicine states that smoking pregnant women will pass down long-term impact of lung disease in generations continuing for centuries. The research result shows that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and grandchildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s of smoking mother at the time of pregnancy experienced problems of asthma from the age of five. Although the child of smoking mother did not experience any problem, the grandchild was highly prone to developing asthma. The researchers have also found that the nicotine present in the tobacco affects the DNA of the infant and affects the immune system of the baby. It is also found that nicotine from the tobacco affects the formation of the egg in the girl child as it grows. Thus, from above research studies it is clear that lifestyle modification in pregnant women would bring major impact in both child and mother. Few research has also proved that even grandchildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and further generation are affected by irregular dietary habits and alcohol and smoking habits. SPIRITUALITY AND ITS IMPACT ON EXPECTANT MOTHER Fasting seems to be one of spiritual activity, which has influenced most of the religious people especially Hindus and Muslims. People by fasting show their gratitude and love towards God. However, fasting when continued for more that two or three days leads to Lower Glycemic Index, reduces the protein and fat level in blood, increases the uric acid content, and possibly reduces the RBC and hemoglobin levels in the blood. If this is the case for normal people, when women with pregnancy undergoes fasting the results would be more drastic leading to ill health to both mother and child. As pregnancy is a crucial period and the mother is expected to consume the right amount of nutrition to maintain her health and the babiesÃ¢â¬â¢ health, fasting during such period has to be avoided. According to a Ã¢â¬ËPhysician Gabriel Cousens, Ã¢â¬Å"fasting means to withdraw from that which is poisonous to the intellect, body and spirit. This can also be described as removal of corporal, emotional and psychological pollutant from our life, more willingly than merely staying away from or interrupting eating. Starving oneself for religious purposes typically involves taking away thyself from worldly duties.Ã¢â¬ On the other hand, in spite of the awareness for the need for proper nutrition some expectant mothers as being more religious blindly believes that by following rituals like fasting would bring GodÃ¢â¬â¢s love and blessings to the child. Especially Muslim womenÃ¢â¬â¢s during the period of Ramadan even if pregnant presume that fasting is obligatory for healthy wellbeing of child and mother. However, Islam is not too harsh on Muslim womenÃ¢â¬â¢s who are pregnant. For that reason, no religion would be cruel to advice fasting during pregnancy. In Islam, the culture itself has prohibited such activity. QurÃ¢â¬â¢an, has stated the following people not to fast during Ramadan, Ã¢â¬Å"pregnant women in her last trimester and also to avoid fasting by expectant mother if its is harmful to the mother and the child, women who is breast feeding, menstruating women and women who are in nifas.Ã¢â¬ Ã According to Hadith, Ã¢â¬Å"the religion also states that if a expectant mother or the breast-feeding mother is subjected to health problems due to fasting, in such case they can fast the equivalent amount of days in another period of time.Ã¢â¬ Fasting are starving in the name of god is not ideal and it only spoils the health of the mother and baby. As pregnancy is an imperative period in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s life attachment between mother and child grows right from the time of conception and develops with intake of right nutrition at right time. Impacts of fasting in Expectant women During pregnancy, the mother has to eat for two hence at this time going without food or starving without food due to spiritual reasons would affect both the child and mother. On the other hand, avoiding food at instance help the mother to remove the toxins from her body. Toxins loaded in the kidney, lungs, bladder, skin, intestinal track, respiratory track etc can be removed when avoiding food at some instances. However, this depends on the body condition of the women. In such cases the pregnant women has to take the advice of her doctor regarding her dietary habits. The culture of Islam states that fasting during first and second trimester of pregnancy is safer. This is also supported by the statement provided by Ã¢â¬ËDr. Shahid Athar; Ã¢â¬Å"according to him expectant based on health conditions can fast during the 1st and 2nd trimesters with the guidance and supervision from her obstetrician.Ã¢â¬ In a study conducted in Africa by researchers from Austin, nearly 89.5% of expectant women were fasting during the month of Ramadan. The result showed that blood glucose level in expectant mother who were fasting were significantly less than the normal amount which has resulted in gestational diabetes among these women. As no carbohydrate is available for producing glucose during the fasting period ketosis occur to avoid the loss of protein, which results in fall in insulin level and augmented weight loss. The research has proved that continuous fasting in pregnant women increase the risk of gestational diabetes, which results in over weight babies, caesarian, and stillbirth. Proper diet management under medical supervision and frequent blood testing for blood sugar can prevent gestational diabetes in pregnant women. Another research by Ã¢â¬Å"Kellymon has proved that fasting leads to dehydration, which thereby decreases the milk supply due to the decreased fluid level in the body.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Another study by Centre for Advance for health in 2000 has revealed that pregnant mothers who starved during the first 14 weeks of pregnancy has given birth to child who are at high risk of heart disease. Form the research studies it is clear that fasting in the name of spirituality has shown adverse effect on both the child and mother. Although the belief of the expectant mother has to be considered, health related issues due to fasting have to be given priority. Since, the effect of fasting affects not only the mother but also the child, such beliefs has to be considered. The impacts of fasting last on childÃ¢â¬â¢s health for longer period and even it grows for several generations. CONCLUSION Ã As pregnancy is a crucial period in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s life special attention and care during this period is more important. Pregnant women in general should be away from stress and try to keep them relaxed and peaceful. Excess stress can create severe impact on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health and in childÃ¢â¬â¢s health and also can lead to preterm delivery and miscarriage. Focusing on positive lifestyle changes before and after pregnancy could yield better results by improving the health and intellect of the baby. Thus for safe and healthy pregnancy, it is always better to be planed to avoid all harmful behaviors. Ã REFERENCES Shahid Athar, Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of Fasting in Pregnant Women during RamadanÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Islamic Medical Association, November 1987. Hadith, Ã¢â¬Å"Studies on Fasting during RamadanÃ¢â¬ , Islamic Horizon, October 2003. Kevin Grove, Ã¢â¬Å"Overeating and its impact on childÃ¢â¬ , Oregon Health and Science University, September 2006 Kristen Hurley, Janet DiPietro, Kathleen Costigan and Laura Caulfield, Ã¢â¬Å"Stress and its Impact in Pregnant Women,Ã¢â¬ Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, June 2005. Ã David Martin, Dr. Jennifer Cropley, Catherine Suter, Kenneth Beckman, Ã¢â¬Å"Diet modification during pregnancy affects the child and the offspringÃ¢â¬ , Children Hospital and Research Centre at Oakland, December 2006. World Health Organization, Ã¢â¬Å"Obesity related to cardiovascular disease in childrenÃ¢â¬ , Blackwell Publishing Ltd, May 2005. Frank D. Gilliland, Yu-Fen Li, Ã¢â¬Å"Smoking during Pregnancy affects the Child and GrandchildÃ¢â¬ , Chest Vol. 128, No. 5, April 2005, Pp 1231-1241. Mozurkewich EL. Ã¢â¬Å"Working Conditions and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome.Ã¢â¬ Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001. 96:624-636.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
High Noon The movie High Noon is a western style movie about loyalty and betrayal. Throughout the whole movie, you can see how Kane is loyal to the town and how the town betrays Kane. The film tells a story about a man who was too proud to runÃ¢â¬â a tale of a lone, stoic marshal (Will Kane) who was left desolate and abandoned by the townspeople he has sworn to protect because of a four-man gang led by Frank Miller. This is where the loyalty part comes in. Kane did not have to stay and protect the townÃ¢â¬â¢s people because he was Ã¢â¬Å"retiredÃ¢â¬ and was going to leave town with his wife. Nonetheless he did stay because he felt that it was his duty to protect the townspeople even though no one would volunteer and help him. His wife, Amy along with the some townspeople tells him to leave town im...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Part 1 Part A (1 & 2) Ã¢â¬â Roles, responsibilities and boundaries As a Training Consultant (TC) and teacher my main role and responsibilities are to educate and deliver effective training and impart my skills and knowledge in my specialist area which is Childcare. This is needed to support the learner either directly or indirectly and to maintain an inclusive, fair/just and motivating learning environment. I understand that as a teacher I am primarily responsible for the health and safety also the moral and physical welfare of my students/learners.I am also responsible for teaching students with Special Educational Needs. I provide Training to Learners within their workplace which can be either in a nursery, a school, Residential Care setting/Children's home or any setting that looks after and educates children. The qualifications I deliver are Certificate (level 2), Diploma (level 3) Children's and Young People's workforce alongside Functional skills; Maths. English and ICT at l evels 1 and 2, and Employment Rights and Responsibilities (ERR).This I deliver both in the workplace and in the classroom. I am employed in a full teaching role. I am required to perform all aspects of the teaching and learning cycle as outlined in the Ã¢â¬Å"Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning SectorÃ¢â¬ 0 As the teacher I am responsible for following company policies and procedures and for attending promotional events, for example: A Career day at local school . This would be to show our potential students the benefit of taking up training with our company.Whilst attending these kind of events I will need to have an up to date and sound knowledge of my specialist subject and at all times follow the Institute for Learning (IFL) code of professional practice as this may be my first contact with potential learners/students. When delivering the Qualifications I use the teaching and learning cycle which is made up of the following five sections; identifying needs, planning tr aining, facilitating learning, assessment, quality assurance and evaluation. This would also help me to judge the abilities of my students and would be helpful for my own self evaluation. 1.Identifying needs: this will start with the initial face to face contact with potential learners/students which is considered the most important as this will create the very first steps of building a bond with the learner/student. This will be a major step in understanding their needs and recognising their potential. Each learner is different due to different previous experiences. To identify their educational background and level I would form a discussion on what previous knowledge they already have and would facilitate communication in such a way that all learners are encouraged to participate in the discussion.Whilst the process of identifying needs is taking place, there are some boundaries that may affect the process. The lack of information regarding learners' requirements can make the proc ess of assessment very difficult because I do not know the background knowledge of the student before starting an initial assessment and this can have negative effects on the process of assessment. Students/ learners may be mature student. Therefore there may be funding constraints. Nursery managers have to adhere to OfstedÃ¢â¬â¢s ratio requirements so staffing arrangement can be stretched having an affect on visit lengths and times.There are many boundaries to teaching. Liaising with other professionals. When liaising with other professionals I will need to remain professional at all times. I frequently liaise with other teachers within our organisation this will include one of our functional skills teachers. She knows her specialist subject well. When needing expert advice on delivery or assessments relating to functional skills I would ask her. This is to ensure that I have to correct information to pass on to my learner, so I do not put them at a disadvantage.I have to deal wi th eternal professionals such as Learning Links this is a agency that deals with young adults who have had a difficultly finding a job for variius reasons such as acholoca, drug abuse. Part B Ã¢â¬â Legislation and Codes of Practice The legislation that impacts my teaching are the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 this Act provides a frame work for all employers and employees outlining their roles and responsibilities to ensure everyone's safety. Equality Act 2010 is a discrimination law that protects people from unfair treatment and creates a fairer and more equal society.Data Protection Act 1998 is a law to protect people's personal information. It is important that I demonstrate that my standards of teaching constantly meet or exceed all Approved Codes of Practice (ACOP) set out by my employers or other professional bodies if compliance is ever called into question. The codes of practice I follow are: Institute for learning (IFL) mentioned above and Early Years and Childcare c ode of practice. A professional code for child carers, providing advice for professionals carrying out their duties and responsibilities within their working role.Firstly, in accordance with Professional practice, members should ensure that no action that they take will be detrimental to the Child's welfare, safety or will hinder the child development. Secondly, members should aim to maintain the highest possible standards of performance, to aim to improve their knowledge, skills and competencies by taking advantage of training. 3As Institute of learning (IFL) points out specific behaviour expected from the member for the benefit of learners, employers, the profession and the wider community. They are as follows: Integrity, Respect, Care, Practice, Disclosure and Responsibility.This is what all members should adhere to, to ensure that good quality teaching is carried out. Thirdly, members should constantly evaluate and reappraise their own methods, policies and practices and keep up to date with current developments in light of changing needs and circumstances. Lastly, member should be aware of the need for confidentiality within their professional practice. Part C Ã¢â¬â Equality, Diversity and Ways to Promote Inclusion The Department for education and skills have a handout called The learning Journey this is a vital tool for all assessors.This clearly shows the process to follow when meeting with the learner/student for the first time. I need to acquire as much information as possible to identify any support needs of the learners. During the discussion, as a teacher I encourage learners to seek initial and further learning and to use services within the organisation. This is called Signposting. This is when I will direct the learner on where to find additional information, guidance and advice or learning resources. Another service within the organisation is Referral.This is when I will direct them to an outside agency depending on the kind of support they require. If they have mental health issues I would direct them to Children and adolescence mental health service, Portsmouth if they are 18 years of age and under and Health recovery, Solent, Portsmouth, if they are 18 years of age and older If they had alcohol, drug or gambling problems I would refer them to Addction within this organisation they have a specialist team to counsel, support both the individual and those closest to them. Once the learner/ tudent has the correct information and agrees with the referral I would either make the appointment or I would give the learners/ students details to the agency. I would then contact the agency to ensure everything is in order. I would then record details and ensure the learner knows what arrangements have been made. I must not discriminate against a learner and must provide every opportunity for every learner that learning will be achieved. To be able to do this properly I need to have prior knowledge of my students through the init ial assessment process.Facilitate Learning: Within the initial meeting I would then make sure that the learners are on the right programme, checking their eligibility for funding, giving advice, guidance and appropriate information, keep records of discussions and agreements, maintain confidentiality and undertake a Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) check, if required. Being a Teacher is extremely rewarding. The quality of learning the advice and guidance on the programme they wish to undertake is very important.What is also necessary is supporting the students' individual needs, applying and adapting my teaching methods to suit the students' preferred learning styles, level of skill and abilities. In doing this, I would be motivating my students to progress and achieve their desired qualifications. Part D Ã¢â¬â Core skills Functional Skills consist of MathÃ¢â¬â¢s, English and ICT. They provide the foundation of knowledge and skills to enable the learner to function at the required level, confidently and independently in everyday life.For example, they help us recognise good deals when making purchases, in writing a CV or application letter, or when using the internet for emails and online banking. Functional Skills qualifications can be achieved at Entry level, Level 1 or Level 2. Some learners may already have achieved at school but it is still important that the teacher embeds the elements of Functional Skills into the subject. It is important to embed Functional skills into everyday work life. Maths is embedded into everyday tasks such as working out ratios, room measurements and nursery fees.English is embedded into everyday during training sessions and work Ã¢â¬â based tasks. ICT skills include using computers, using email for communication and word processing. It is important that a teacher has competence of their Functional Skills. If handouts were produced with spelling mistakes or the teacher could not operate a computer, it would cause the learn ers to lose confidence in the teacher and lack of credibility. Part E Ã¢â¬â Environment I need to create a safe, non-threatening, good atmosphere at all times.To quote from Teaching and Teacher education hand-out from PTLLS course3 Ã¢â¬Å"having a safe, supportive environment provides a foundation for maintaining the productive relationshipsÃ¢â¬ . I agree with this statement as I frequently come across this situation with my learners, especially in childcare. If there is not a suitable environment for teaching and giving feedback then the learner remains in the formal stage and will not move into the informal stage where most of the learning takes place. Therefore, this would mean I have failed to empower and motivate the learner.With this in mind 5Maslow's hierarchy of needs clearly states Ã¢â¬Å"that we must satisfy each need in turn starting at the bottom and working our way upÃ¢â¬ Please see Maslow's triangle below. If the physical, emotional and wellbeing needs are not met then the higher order needs are not considered. So as a Teacher it is important to meet these needs in the first or second meeting and throughout out the length of the programme. I will make sure the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are met when planning the initial meeting. Therefore at the same time make sure all parties involved i. managers, supervisors and mentors are made aware and that they agree with the length of meeting and the meeting place for both the learner and I. Part F Ã¢â¬â Ground rules Ground rules need to be set to establish boundaries for students starting a course, knowing some basics about what is expected during the length of study. In all teaching and training sessions ground rules are necessary to ensure that all learners have the same expectations on how to behave. The ground rules can be established by talking through behavior expectations of the learner and myself.By involving the learner they are more than likely to take ownership and empower the students. Ground Rules that can be : Such as punctuality, mobile phones of or on silent, confidentiality and most of all respect. Parts G and H, Effective Feedback, Engaging and Motivating Learners For every individual there is a variable driving force. Not all students are naturally motivated. Some need to be challenged, inspired and stimulated to learn and see a task through to the end. Not all learners are motivated by the same things some students are motivated by the approval of others or self challenge.To encourage students to become self-motivated, independent learners, as a teacher I can do the following: Give frequent, early,positive and constructive feedback that supports students' beliefs that they can do well. Support learners that need it, keeping in mind their attention span limits and discuss and set together SMART targets. Furthermore, whilst demonstrating all the above and showing respect for the learners/student individuality will in itself be a motivator to learn. Within th e assessment plan you will be making an Assessment decision along with feedback: When giving feedback all learners will need to now how well they are getting on and what they have achieved. I always use the praise sandwich feedback method. This is Praise- Corrective feedback Ã¢â¬â Praise. This method Ã¢â¬Ësoftens' the impact of the corrective feedback. The key to give effective feedback is to give feedback straight away and to do so with respect, understanding and action. 9As it states in PTLLS handout Ã¢â¬Å"Giving and Receiving FeedbackÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ËFeedback is an important communication tool that can improve the way we work with one another. Ã¢â¬Ë My organisation requires me to write down feedback on my assessment plans and on formal reviews.Task 3, Part 2 Part A Principles of assessment Initial Assessments are used to check the learners/students Literacy, language and numeracy skills to determine the level at which the learner/student is at and if they have any prior nee ds that need to be addressed before and during the programme. Diagnostics give a more thorough indication of the level and also the specific aspects for development as well as strengths. Identifying learning styles as a part of the initial assessment will help me determine the learning approaches to use and effectively complete the learners Individual Learning Plan (ILP).This is the students' timetable for learning and resources required. There are two well-known types of learning styles questionnaires that are commonly used with in our organisation. They are Visual Audio and Kinaesthetic (VAK) and Multiple Intelligences test. To begin with Fleming (2005) stated Ã¢â¬Å"that people can be grouped into four styles of learning: 6Visual, Aural, Read/write and Kinaesthetic (VARK). Not all learners fall into one style they can be the mixture of the four. In the second place Honey and Mumford (1992) suggests that learners are a mixture of the fours styles: Activist: Love challenges and are enthusiastic, enjoy dealing with new problems Pragmatist: They apply what they have learned to practical situation and enjoy the logical reason for doing something. Theorist: prefer to read lots of material first liking things that have been tried and tested. Reflector: like to think things in depth and then try something then reflect on the activity again. All information gathered from the initial assessment will help complete the ILP.Knowing your learners/students learning styles will help you adapt your teaching to suit their needs and in turn motivate them. Assessment activity: There are various types of assessment methods used both formal and informal . Formal assessment methods include assignments, case studies, essays, exams, multiple choice questions, observations, professional discussions, projects, tests and witness testimonies. Informal assessment methods include; discussions, gapped hangouts, journal diaries, peer assessments, puzzles and crosswords, self assessments, q uestions Ã¢â¬â oral and written, quizzes, role play and worksheets.I have to choose assessment methods accordingly depending on the student prior attainment and level of programme they are studying. Observation is a good way of assessing the learner within the workplace to assess learners' competence, attitudes and skills. This can then be followed up with oral questioning to confirm why they did or dealt with a certain situation in a particular way, checking their knowledge and understanding and encouraging them to reflect on their practice. If the observation was within a group situation then peer and self-assessment could also be used in conjunction with the observation.By using these methods the student are acquiring listening, observing and questioning skills. . Parts B and D Ã¢â¬â Creating Assessment Opportunities and Involving Learners in the Assessment Process Planning Training: My role is to plan what will be taught and when. This is a two- way process between me and my student. After completing the initial assessment I progress forward onto Assessment planning. This type of assessment is formative Ã¢â¬â reviewing progress throughout the programme until the end or when the learner leaves. I will plan what we are going to do so the student knows what is expected of them.If the students are working on assignments then I would need to set targets for completion. Moreover, if students are going to be assessed at work, either by an observation or simulation, then I would need to consider who, what, when, where, why and how to ensure we are both aware of the requirements. When planning I will need to ensure that all assessments are valid, authentic, reliable, current, and sufficient (VARCS). If I do not consider these aspects when planning then I will not know what I am assessing is necessary, credible, fair and relevant.The ILP is a personalised, flexible map to guide the learners journey. Within the ILP there will be results of the initial, and d iagnostic, assessment and learning styles. This will also include learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s targets, timescales, details of resources and details of how and where the learning will take place. The ILP is a working document and should be used as an aid for both learners and students to record, negotiate and plan, review, assess and reflect on the learning experiences throughout their programme. Summative ssessment Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Part C Ã¢â¬â Strengths and Limitations of Assessment Methods Assessment: There is a large variety of assessment methods available for assessing learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ achievements. These include: observation, oral and written questioning, product evidence, discussions, witness testimony, recognising prior learning; skills tests, written assignments and case studies. Choosing the most appropriate assessment methods is vitally important to help and support and maintain motivation.Direct Observation: Allows the assessor to see the candidate in action and may be able to cover several aspects of the qualification during a single session (Holistic) the observation can take place within the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s normal working hours so there is minimal disruption as they are able to continue to do their job while being assessed. This should be planned in advance to suit both the learners and the assessor. This will also have to be arranged with the manager. The observation will have to be recorded in some way such as hand written, typed or recorded on DVR.Learners may Ã¢â¬Å"performÃ¢â¬ differently as they are being watched. After the observation it is good practice to ask oral questions to clarify the reasons behind the actions. Questioning can take a number of forms. They can be delivered orally or in written form. Oral questions may suit learners with dyslexia or poor literacy skills. Workbooks can be produced to cover all knowledge questions for mandatory and optional units. After Observation the learner can be asked to explain why they did something; this gives them an opportunity to expand on things like procedures, policies or legislation.Part E Peer and self-assessment I use self Ã¢â¬â assessment on a regular basis as this promotes students involvement and responsibility and encourages reflection which is an integral part of the role as a childcare practitioner. However there are also limitations depending on the students as some students may lack confidence in their own ability and they may think that they have achieved more than they actually have Peer and self-assessment could also be used in conjunction with an observation. To make this a reliable assessment method he student will have to fully understand the assessment criteria and how to be fair and objective. There are many advantages and disadvantage of peer assessment. Students are focused on the criteria and this will empower each student to take ownership of their own learning and understan ding. A disadvantage is that student might be friends with their peers therefore being subjective rather than objective. Part F Ã¢â¬â Keeping Records of Assessments Quality and Evaluation: Record keeping. Is a part of quality assurance and is a process that has to be followed.This proves that the qualifications are being delivered and assessed fairly, consistently and accurately. This is in line with the Ofsted requirements. Within our organisation we use a variety of methods to maintain quality assurance. Our policies and procedures are revised yearly in order to test their current effectiveness and legality. If they need to be changed due to changes in legislation then this would be actioned immediately. The TC will be observed at regular intervals and scored using the Ofsted grading process.Staff Continuous Professional Development (CPD) records are kept up to date. Standardisation of practice takes place this is when will compare and conform procedures. Learner retention is m onitored along with complaints and appeals. During the course learner and employers surveys are completed. Quality Assurance is necessary to evaluate and Maintain high teaching standards. On all visits I will need to complete an assessment plan, records must be up to date, accurate, legible and factual.This is similar to a written contract between me and my learner but this can be reviewed and changed at any time. All assessment plan will be shared with my manager and mentor to confirm progress and to point out any areas of development needed for the learner to progress. Both the learner their manager will sign and be given a copy Word Count References Anne Gravells (2012), Preparing to Teach in the Life long sector: London,SAGE. 11. 1. Handout from Pttls course Teaching and Learning. 2. Handout from Pttls course Insitute For Learning. . Handout form Pttls course Teaching and teacher education. 4. Handout from Pttls course, The Learning Journer. 5. Handout from Pttls course, Maslow Hierarchy of needs. 6. Handout from Pttls courser VAK testing. 7. Anne Gravells (2012), Preparing to Teach in the Life long sector: London,SAGE. 32. 8. Anne Gravells (2012), Preparing to Teach in the Life long sector:London,SAGE. 112. 9. Handout from Pttls course giving and recieving feedback, Bibliography Anne Gravells (2012), Preparing to Teach in the Life long sector,: London,SAGE.
Monday, January 6, 2020
My main focus for this essay was to learn the main causes of development of cancer and just a better overall understanding of cancer as a whole because it is related to a few of the units we have covered. Cancer is a word that no one wants to hear or read about, but many are faced with this word every day. It can affect people of all ages and genders. According to the Canadian Cancer Society, cancer is a disease that starts in our cells. Genes inside each cell instruct the cell to grow, work, reproduce or die. When cells follow all instruction normally, everything works just fine. However, when cells get instructions wrong, cells can form tumors or lumps. They can also spread throughout the bloodstream and lymphatic system,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Commonly, a mass of malignant cells is called a cancer. Oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and DNA repair genes are three types of cancer genes. People may inherit a mutated version of one of these genes which will make them more likely to develop a certain type of cancer. Oncogenes cause cells to grow out of control and promote cancer cell growth. They are a damaged version of the normal proto-oncogenes in our bodies. Tumour suppressor genes are genes that would, in a healthy person, protect us from cancer. They help us stop cell growth and control cell death. When these cells are missing or damaged they cause cell growth, division and death to be uncontrolled. According to the Canadian Cancer Society, Ã¢â¬Å"nearly 50% of all cancers are thought to involve a damaged or missing tumour suppressor gene.Ã¢â¬ DNA repair genes are responsible for repairing damaged genes. During copying of DNA, if mutations occur, they are there to fix the mistakes. These three genes are the main causes of cancer related mutations. Cancer development is a long process involving many steps. Usually it takes many years because several genetic mutations are required. Typically, many years pass between exposure to a cancer causing event or agent and the cancer actually developing. Typically, we see cancer in older ages because mutations have built up and they may have had more